Rules v1.31

Undying King Games

1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction to Europa

Europa is a game of destiny, the inevitable rise and fall of empire. Chiefs and Kings, Warlords and Emperors lead nations to glory or to ignominious collapse. The leviathan of one age provides another's grovelling slaves.

Whisper in the ear of those who will make the earth shudder to the noise of marching feet, manipulate the destinies of the greatest names of all time, and lay low the budding rulers of the following century. For whatever power you represent, be it divine, arcane, the minions of a secret society or simply the sweeping winds of chaos, someone, somewhere will listen to you, and maybe change history in the process.

Europa is a quasi-historical diplomatic wargame for eight players. We say 'quasi-historical' because although it's set in a historical period and the flavour is historical, the actual nations and events that take place are unlikely to bear much relation to historical ones. If you want to re-enact the great battles of the Roman Empire, this game is not for you. If on the other hand you want to speculate about how a Transylvanian Empire might have fared, it just might be… The players do not play particular tribes and are not geographically localized: instead they strive with each other to control and manipulate the fledgling civilizations that from time to time pop up on the continent of Europa, and to make the most of their potentials. All player positions are identical at game start.

Players may have different ideas about exactly what their positions represent. Perhaps you see yourself as a god, manipulating your worshippers to maximize your power; perhaps you are a beneficent alien, nurturing humanity towards a technological future; perhaps you are an Illuminated group, using human kingdoms as pawns in a greater game; or perhaps you might be what Leopold von Ranke called a 'divine idea', a concept, dream or vision which unites people and leads them onwards. Or perhaps you have another alternative. It's up to you! Just as long as its name isn't too long (30 characters is the maximum), defamatory or obscene!

1.2 Europan terms

2 How does it work?

This section is just a brief summary of the way Europa works - all its parts are dealt with in more detail later on. But basically this is what you'll be doing in a typical turn.

For each kingdom, independent province, or barbarian horde you currently control, you give it orders. Each different type of thing has a different choice of orders: kingdoms have a lot more orders than barbarians do.

What you're aiming to do is basically score victory points, which you mostly get for the total amount of civilization and the total amount of population under your control. So it will generally be helpful to control as many provinces as possible, whether independently or as part of kingdoms, but you'll want to use a combination of the different orders to optimize your strategy. Another thing to bear in mind is that victory points scored later in the game are worth more than those scored at the beginning, so you'll want your strategy to evolve during the course of the game.

Finally, each turn you'll have new control points to bid, which you'll want to spread around the new leaders and barbarians who have appeared that turn, or among independent provinces, in the hope of establishing new kingdoms, ensuring succession in your existing ones, harassing other players, or whatever other combination of strategies you may have in mind.

Simple as that!

2.1 Independent province

2.1.1 What is it?

This is a province that you bid for and control directly, without a leader being involved. You score VPs for its civ and pop, each turn that you control it.

2.1.2 How can I get one?

Control of an independent province, unlike control of a leader, is insecure. Another player can bid it off you, just by bidding more control points than you do for it on any particular turn. On the other hand, you can keep control of it without bidding any points at all, if no-one else bothers to compete with you. Note also that if the province joins a kingdom, either by being conquered or by being persuaded, it is no longer independent and you lose control of it. For these reasons, basing your strategy around control of independent provinces is pretty chancy and not really to be recommended.

Each turn, you can bid for any province which is currently independent, ie. not part of a kingdom (unless that kingdom is a rump). But bear in mind that if you bid for it and it becomes part of a kingdom during the turn, that's just tough, you lose out.

2.1.3 What can it do?

Independent provinces don't have a huge number of options. Each turn you control one you can order it to:

There's more details on all of these later.

2.2 Leader

2.2.1 What is it?

This is an individual who, when you take control of him, will become a king or duke and will be able to amass mighty empires for you - if all goes to plan.

2.2.2 How can I get one?

Each turn, you can bid for any leader who isn't controlled by a player. The player who bids most control points will get control of that leader, and will then control him until he dies - you need not fear another player bidding him off you.

Each leader has a home province, which will be his capital. During the course of the game, each province will generate exactly one leader, but their order will be random. If, at the point you take control of him, this province is inside a kingdom, then your leader will start life as a duke of that kingdom. If on the other hand his home province is independent at the point you take control of him, he will start life as a king. Leaders can change from duke to king and vice versa during their existence, so it's not a life sentence.

2.2.3 What can he do?

It varies slightly according to whether he's a king or a duke, but in general he can do the following:

There's details on each of these later.

2.3 Barbarian horde

2.3.1 What is it?

A free-moving rabble of wildmen who will appear on the edge of the map and roam across it, generally causing trouble for the established kingdoms.

2.3.2 How can I get one?

Barbarian hordes arise randomly in the same way as leaders do. During the course of the game there will be 12 of them: four each from Arabia, Asia and the North Sea. The player who bids most control points for a particular horde in the turn it appears will gain control of it, and this control cannot subsequently be broken by other players. If no-one bids for it, it will disappear.

You may also be given a free extra barbarian horde, if you're not doing very well. Basically any turn which ends with you controlling no leaders at all, you'll be given a random horde.

2.3.3 What can it do?

Barbarian hordes have three options for what they can do each turn:

Barbarians are unusual in that they must keep moving from province to province: they cannot stay in the same province for two turns in a row - although they can return to one they've already visited. If you don't order them to move, the computer will move them randomly.

2.3.4 Size of barbarian hordes

Not all barbarian hordes are the same size. The four standard hordes from each barbarian region will be one 'small', one 'medium', one 'large', and one random (equal probability of 'small', 'medium' or 'large'). The order in which they come up is also random.

However, even within this scheme there is some variation. When the barbarian horde appears on the map it just has one of the above size descriptors: it is not until it is controlled by a player that its size is fixed exactly. And this size will depend on how large that player's armies are currently, compared with those of Europa as a whole. The reason is that barbarians are less keen to work with the controllers of large, successful militaristic kingdoms, and keener to team up with controllers of no kingdoms, small kingdoms or kingdoms under the cosh. So the initial size of a particular barbarian horde is given by:

Size = constant ([0.5 total armies of Europa] - player's total armies)

where the constant is 0.2 for a 'large' horde, 0.1 for a 'medium' horde and 0.05 for a 'small' horde.

So you can see that the smaller your armies are compared with those of your rivals, the bigger your barbarian hordes will be: and a player who militarily dominates Europa will receive barbarian hordes so small that they're hardly worth bidding for. (The minimum size of horde is 1, in case you'd spotted that this size equation might end up negative.)

3 Provinces and their doings

As this game is all about taking control and ownership of provinces, it's worth looking at them in some detail. There are four basic stats which are of importance when talking about them: terrain type, population, civ levels and ferocity. There are also four other stats which are derived from combinations of these: basic trade value, maximum population, population density and militia size.

On the back of your map is a list of all the 85 provinces. It gives their reference number, name, location on the map, three-letter abbreviation, and basic trade value.

3.1 Terrain type

If you look at the map, you will see that not all provinces are alike. Some are forested, such as Ireland; some are mountainous, such as Highlands; some are forested mountain, such as Transylvania; some are plains (neither forest nor mountain), such as Essex. Some are on the sea, such as Kent; some are on rivers (the thick black lines), such as Portugal.

The presence of any of these four features will affect the province's basic trade value (BTV), and the presence of forests and / or mountains will make the province easier to defend.

3.2 Population

This is a variable stat, which will go up and down during the course of the game. In general you want it to be as high as possible in the provinces you control or your leaders own, because this is one of the ways you score victory points. Pop increases naturally over time, and it can be increased by trade or by raiding. It is decreased by being attacked, by raising troops, and by the effects of plague. More details on all of these things later.

3.3 Civ levels

These (each province has three of them, one for each of the three civ paths - social, commercial and military) are also variable. In general they will increase during the game, but they will fall if the province is attacked. Again, you generally want them to be as high as possible in the province you control or your leaders own, because this is the main source of VPs for you. All three civ paths are also useful in the game. High social civ improves the maximum pop the province can sustain; high commercial civ improves its sphere of influence; and high military civ improves the effectiveness of its troops.

All the provinces start at 0 civ in each path. The highest level available is 6. This table shows what the levels of advance denote (approximately): this is pure atmospherics, though, they're just numbers really.

water supplies
shield wall
merchant league

To gain higher levels of civ is progressively more difficult. When you improve civ, you do so by a thing called a 'fractional point': and each successive level of civ needs more fractional points to make up a whole one. It goes like this:


So if you start at 0, your first fractional point scored will take you to 1. The next will take you to 1.1, and the next to 2. You then need three more fractional points to take you to 3 civ, then four more to reach 4 civ, and so on.

It's important to remember that the things which gain you civ advance it at a rate measured in fractional points: but the benefits of advance come at integer levels. When an independent province or a rump orders to develop, it gains 1 fractional point each of soc, com and mil: when a kingdom or duchy develops, it can choose to have either 1 of each; or 2 of soc and 1 of com; or 2 of com and 1 of soc.

3.4 Ferocity

All provinces start the game at maximum ferocity, which is 10. As they become civilized, they will also get decadent and namby-pamby, and will lose ferocity, which will lower their effectiveness at fighting.

A province will lose ferocity if it is ordered to develop, or to trade, and it may also lose it if the capital of the kingdom it is in is less ferocious than it is. There's more detail on this process later.

3.5 Basic trade value

Basic trade value, usually abbreviated to BTV, is an indicator of the natural wealth of the province. It is directly derived from the province's terrain. This is how it works:

+1 for a river
+2 for the sea

So eg. Kent has no mountain or forest, has a river and the sea, so has a basic trade value of 3 + 1 + 2 = 6. Burgundy has forest but no mountain, and a river but no sea, so has a BTV of 2 + 1 = 3.

All the provinces' BTVs are listed on the back of your map.

3.6 Maximum population

Or 'max pop'. A province's max pop depends on its BTV and on its current level of social civ, as follows:

Soc civ

So for a good province like Essex, with basic trade value 6, at the start of the game when it has 0 social civ its maximum population is 24. If it ever gets up to 6 social civ, it will have a maximum population of 96. A scummy province like Transylvania, on the other hand, with a basic trade value of only 2, starts with max pop of 16, and can only ever reach a max of 64 pop.

3.7 Population density

Or 'pd'. This is just the fraction of current pop over max pop. So if Essex has social civ 3 (hence max pop 60) and currently has a pop of 32, then its pd is 32 / 60 = 0.53.

At the start of the game all provinces have exactly half their max pop, so have pd of 0.50.

3.8 Militia size

All provinces will be defended by their militia. Independent provinces have just the militia, provinces which are part of kingdoms will get some of the king's army as well. Militia size is simply one fifth of the province's total population, who grab up improvised weaponry when it is attacked. So the more pop you have, the bigger your militia will be.

4 Distance and sphere of influence

4.1 Sphere of influence

The concept of sphere of influence is an important one in Europa. Each province has a sphere of influence which depends upon its commercial civ, and basically this defines the area over which it can act. You can only attack a target which is in your sphere of influence, you can only trade with people in your sphere of influence, you can only swear fealty to a king in your sphere of influence, and so on.

Sphere of

What do the numbers in this table mean? They mean that if eg. you have commercial civ 3, your sphere of influence covers all the provinces that are a distance of 9 or less from you. But how is distance measured? Read on…

4.2 Distance

It's quite simple really. To work out the distance between two provinces you just add up the values for each of them and for all that lie on the path between them, as follows: 1 for plains, 2 for forest, 3 for mountain or forested mountain, and 4 for sea. Rivers don't cost anything to cross.

You always trace distance using the shortest path possible. And you can never trace it through the barbarian regions of Sahara, Arabia and Asia.

You can immediately see, looking at these rules, that at the start of the game, when everyone has com civ 0 and thus SoI 3, mountainous provinces have a sphere of influence that is too small to reach any other provinces at all.

5 Control points

On each of your order sheets, you will be told how many control points you have available to bid in the next turn. If you don't currently control any leaders, as at the start of the game, this number will be 10. But for every live leader you control, your control points are reduced by 1. So if you have two leaders currently alive, you'll only have 8 control points to bid: and so on. This is a sort of balancing mechanism: player entities which already have their hands full manipulating large numbers of leaders aren't so able to actively seek out new ones to control. Control points are only reduced for control of live leaders, not of rumps or of barbarian hordes.

You can bid for uncontrolled leaders, for uncontrolled barbarians, and for independent provinces, splitting your control points between them in any combination (of integers!) So if you had 9 CP, you might bid 3 for the leader of Wessex, 2 for the leader of Smolensk, 2 for barbarian horde #7, and 2 for the province of Ravenna, for example.

You don't have to bid all your CP if you don't want to. Any that you don't use will be converted straight into VP at a rate of one for one. And any that you unsuccessfully tried to use - ie. another player outbid you for something - will not be wasted but will also be converted into VP.

Note that the number of CP you have available to bid is determined by the number of leaders you control at the beginning of the turn, and is printed on your order sheet - you can't bid more than this. You may have some of them killed, or die of old age, by the point in the turn at which the control bids are enacted, but that's just tough, you don't get any extra CP for it. You do get a VP for each leader who's died during the turn, but that's it.

The things to remember about control points are:

Control is allocated in the order first leaders, then provinces, then barbarians.

6 Leaders

6.1 Where do they come from?

At the start of the game there are twelve newly-born leaders on the map, and each turn after that there will be up to five more born. Each of the 85 provinces will have exactly one leader come up during the course of the game, but the order will be random. To confuse the issue, sometimes barbarian hordes are generated instead of leaders being born, but that doesn't make any difference to this discussion.

The twelve starting leaders are in Carinthia, Castille, Ditmarsh, Kent, Kiev, Lydia, Neustria, Rome, Septimania, Skane, Strathclyde and Tripolitania.

6.2 Ageing and death

When a leader is born he is at age 0: each turn after that he ages by 1. Once he gets past age 3, he has a chance of spontaneously dying, like this:

At the end
of his Xth turn…
he has Y chance
of dying…
else he
becomes age Z
On appearing

So no leader will ever last beyond age 6, and once he gets past age 4 you should be seriously planning for his replacement.

A leader will also be killed if his capital is conquered. Apart from that, he can have as many military disasters as he likes, and ride away laughing, but if the capital is conquered, that's it - the invaders drag him out from where he's hiding behind his throne and ceremonially execute him, if he didn't get slain on the battlefield.

Note that unless a leader is controlled (ie. someone bids for him) he will just sit around in his hut doing nothing but get older, and will not interact with the game in any way. Because there are five new leaders each turn, and eight players to bid for them, it'll quite often happen that the votes will cluster so that one doesn't get picked up. If you can get him cheaply in a later turn he may still be useful despite his advanced years.

6.3 Kings and dukes

Depending on what the local political situation is when a leader is first controlled, he will be either a king or a duke. If the province he appears in is part of an existing active kingdom (not a rump) then he will start life as a duke. Otherwise he will immediately set up a little 1-province kingdom at his capital.

Dukes can secede from their overlords any time they want, which immediately turns their duchy into a kingdom. This does make the erstwhile overlord Unfriendly to you, though, and he can now attack you which he couldn't do when you were his duke, so caution is advised.

Similarly, kings can swear fealty to other kings whenever they want, with the proviso that the other king must be in your sphere of influence. If he is not, the order will fail. If he is not in fact a king but a duke himself, then your order will automatically be changed to swearing fealty to his overlord rather than to him - and, again, this will only work if the overlord is in your sphere of influence.

Note that a king cannot swear fealty to his own duke. The duke has to secede first and become a king himself, then you can swear fealty to him. To be honest, there would rarely be any very good reason for wanting to do this.

6.4 When a king dies

This is a very sad occasion, with lots of mourning and so forth, but the practicalities of what will happen to the kingdom soon push themselves forward into the spotlight. And precisely what happens depends on whether he died of old age, or from being conquered.

If he died of from old age, there are two possibilities: either he has an heir, or he doesn't. An heir is simply a duke within the kingdom, who must be controlled by the same player. Dukes controlled by other players can never be heirs: nor can leaders of your own who are outside the kingdom.

6.4.1 If he has an heir

In this fortunate situation, the succession is smooth. The whole kingdom passes to the heir. The heir's capital becomes the capital of the kingdom. The kingdom's army is preserved and moves to join the new king. The only thing that changes apart from that is that any provinces which are outside the heir's sphere of influence become vassals, even if they were not previously. This can cause problems if your heir is stuck on one edge of the kingdom, or in mountains or something: it's more difficult for him to exert regal influence over those provinces he can't easily reach.

If you were lucky enough to have more than one duke of your own inside the kingdom, then it is the oldest one who inherits. Others simply shift to being dukes of the new king.

If other players had dukes inside the kingdom, then they will automatically secede from it on the old king's death. It is for the new king to tempt them back into the fold, if he so wishes. In this case of secession, the kingdom does not automatically become Unfriendly, as it would in an ordinary voluntary secession.

Attitudes of other nations towards the old king are transferred to the new one, but the old king's attitudes to other nations are not transferred. This is discussed a bit more later, when we talk about attitudes generally.

6.4.2 If he doesn't have an heir

In this case, the kingdom becomes a rump. A rump is a rather sad affair, which preserves the appearance and formality of a kingdom but without any of the vitality and drive. You keep on controlling the rump, and you keep on scoring victory points for it, but the range of orders available to it are considerably restricted compared with an active kingdom.

Rumps are quite vulnerable to being taken apart by predatory neighbours, as well. All the provinces of a rump (apart from the capital) immediately become vassals and so are susceptible to persuasion away from the rump (we talk a bit later about what vassals and persuasion are). They can also be bid for and controlled directly as independent provinces (which also takes them away from the rump), which can't be done to the provinces of active kingdoms.

If you can preserve the rump at a decent size, though, then you may be lucky enough to be able to revitalize it. This will happen if you succeed in gaining control of a new leader who is born within the rump. He will immediately be recognized as being a sprig of the ancient bloodline, and will become king just as if he had inherited immediately: the rump will turn back into an active kingdom.

6.4.3 If he was conquered

If he was conquered and had an heir, then the situation is much as above. The heir inherits, dukes belonging to other players secede, dukes belonging to the same player become dukes of the new king, the capital moves. The main difference is that all the provinces automatically become vassals, even if they weren't before: this is to represent the organizational paralysis that descends over the kingdom.

If he was conquered and didn't have an heir, then rather than a rump forming, the kingdom is utterly destroyed. All its subject provinces become independent.

7 Attitude

Part of the responsibility of leadership is having to maintain attitudes to other leaders. There are three attitudes it is possible to have: Friendly, Neutral and Unfriendly. In general, all leaders are Neutral to all other leaders. To change to Friendly or Unfriendly requires use of the appropriate order. Note that you cannot change attitude by two steps at once - in other words, you can't go straight from Friendly to Unfriendly or vice versa, you have to spend a turn at Neutral inbetween.

You can only declare attitudes to kingdoms or duchies, not to independent provinces or rumps. You only need to declare the attitude to the capital, and it automatically applies to all constituent provinces. You can have a different attitude to a king and to one or more of his dukes, if you want, although in general the one to the king will be more important.

When a king dies, if his kingdom is inherited by a new king, your attitude is transferred to him. If instead it becomes a rump or disappears altogether, so does your attitude. Note, though, that in the case of an heir succeeding, he will not inherit the old king's attitude towards you. He will retain whatever attitude he had to you as a duke, or else he will be neutral.

7.1 Hostility

A state of Hostility exists between two leaders if at least one of them is Unfriendly to the other. It doesn't matter which, or if the other one is Neutral or even Friendly, all it takes is for one of them to be Unfriendly and the relationship is considered to be a Hostile one. This is important for combat purposes: it's more difficult to attack someone with whom you are not Hostile.

8 Combat

Kingdoms, duchies, independent provinces, rumps and barbarians can all engage in combat with their neighbours. Here is a quick summary of what each type is capable of each turn:

For kings and dukes, it helps to be Hostile to your target: if you are not, your attack will be at a penalty. This penalty is larger the larger your kingdom or duchy is, to represent the increased difficulty of mobilizing a large realm against a foe for whom you were not prepared. If you are not Hostile, your kill fraction (see later for what this is) will be reduced by 10% for each province in your kingdom or duchy - that is, your kill fraction is multiplied by (0.9 to the power of [number of provinces]) So a 1-province kingdom will be at 90% capability if it attacks from neutral, a 5-province kingdom will be at 59%, and a 10-province kingdom will fight at just 34% of its usual capability if it attacks from neutral.

This non-Hostility penalty only applies when you're attacking other kingdoms or duchies, of course. You don't need to be Hostile to independent provinces or rumps: you can attack them with impunity.

Another restriction is that you can't attack anywhere that's within your own kingdom. This means that kings can't attack their own dukes, and dukes can't attack their fellow-dukes. On the other hand dukes can attack their kings; because, if they do, it automatically secedes them from the kingdom first.

8.1 Ferocity

Ferocity is an important concept in Europa. All its people start off at maximum ferocity, but those who become more civilized will gradually lose their ferocity and become decadent, reducing their combat effectiveness. This loss in ferocity can partly be offset by improving your military civ to compensate, but only if you are quite warlike: if you concentrate on the fine things in life, your people will become easy prey for ruffians to pounce upon.

Ferocity starts at 10 for each province, and decreases by a point each time the province (or kingdom / duchy / rump, if the province is a capital) is ordered to either trade or develop. Capitals lose ferocity first, but this decadence will in time spread to outlying provinces as well. See 12.5 for more on this decadence effect. The minimum ferocity is 2.

8.2 Kill fraction

The Europa combat system is pretty simple and completely deterministic: there are no random numbers involved. Each side in the combat will have a particular number of troops present, and a 'kill fraction' given by:

Kill fraction = 0.025 Ferocity (1 + [mil civ/3])

The mil civ and ferocity in question are those of the province, for militia; those of the king, for kingdom troops; those of the duke, for ducal troops; or those of the horde, for barbarians.

In a force made up of a mix of troops (it might include kingdom troops, local militia and one or more ducal contingents) the overall kill fraction is calculated as a weighted average. So a small elite ducal contingent will be able to increase the overall capability of the massive army they join.

The attacking side may have a penalty to its kill fraction if it was not Hostile with the defender (see 7.1 above).

The defending side gets a bonus to its kill fraction related to terrain. The kill fraction is multiplied by 1 if it is a plains province, 1.25 if forest, 1.5 if mountains, 1.75 if forested mountains.

8.3 Rounds of combat

Combat takes place over a succession of rounds. On each round, each side kills a number of the opposition troops equal to their own number of troops multiplied by their own kill fraction, rounded down. So if your army has 20 troops with kill fraction 0.28, you will kill 5 enemy on the first round of combat.

If the combat is a raid, it stops after just this first round, and the attackers gain booty according to their success. If it is a conquest, then after this first round the attackers will automatically retreat if it is clear they are going to lose: otherwise combat will proceed round by round until all the defenders are dead. There's a small chance that the combat will end in stalemate, with neither side able to finish the other of: in this case the attackers also retreat.

The way the combat system works means that a good kill fraction superiority will make up for a lot of numerical inferiority. But, in general, a small disparity in capability will lead to a large disparity in losses. Battles are only rarely close-run affairs. In general, when a large kingdom is conquering an isolated province (which is the most common form of combat) it will take negligible losses.

8.4 Results of raiding

In a raid, the attackers return home after just one round of combat. The amount of booty they gain depends on the proportion of the defenders that they managed to kill in this one round. If they managed to kill 2 troops out of the defenders' 6, they would grab booty equal to 33% of the defender's pop (after the defender has taken losses for his militia killed), and add it to their own pop. The defender on the other hand always loses twice this proportion of pop, because it's assumed a similar number of innocents get killed as get captured. So if in this example the defender had started with 30 pop, after the raid he would have 10 left. 2 would have been killed as militia: 9 would have been grabbed by the attackers: a further 9 would have been killed in pillaging.

8.5 Results of conquest

A conquest is fought to the death, or to the first round if the attackers realize they have no hope. If it is successful then the population of the victim province is halved, and each civ path in which the victim province has a higher level than the capital of the invaders goes down by 1 full level (eg. from 3.1 to 2.1. If it was at eg. 3.3, it cannot go to 2.3 as this doesn't exist, so goes to 3.0).

Apart from that, the province in question becomes part of the attacker's kingdom or duchy. And if it was a capital, the leader who was based there is killed, any dukes he had become kings, and any other provinces he owned become independent.

8.6 Combat sequence

The order in which attacks take place is important to bear in mind. You may conquer a province early in the sequence, only to have someone else conquer it back off you later on. In general people who attack later in the sequence will be better off, although you'll be able to think of situations when this wouldn't be true.

The way it works is that kingdoms, duchies, rumps and provinces act in reverse order of their flexibility. This is given by:

Flexibility = Number of provinces in your SoI / Number of provinces that you own

So if you are a very small kingdom with a very large SoI, you will have a very large flexibility and will attack late in the sequence: if you are a large kingdom and already control all of your SoI, you will have a very small flexibility and will attack early in the sequence. The thinking here is that these very flexible kingdoms are better able to respond to the movements of others.

Note that this flexibility rule also applies to independent provinces' raids. Independent provinces, if they have a decent com civ and hence SoI, will tend to have very good flexibility, as the fractions' denominator will only be 1.

Barbarians don't really have flexibility. Each barbarian horde is assigned a random position within the combat sequence, so when exactly it will attack is completely unpredictable

8.7 Militia

Any province which is attacked will automatically be defended by its militia, which is equal to 20% of its population, as discussed in 3.8 above. Provinces which are part of kingdoms will be defended by army as well, but the militia will always play its part. The militia always uses the kill fraction of the province rather than that of the kingdom as a whole, and any losses it takes are subtracted directly from the province's population. It immediately regenerates to 20% of the new population at the end of each combat. The size and activities of militia are completely automatic, and the player has no control over them, apart from being able to tell them to go and raid their neighbours.

8.8 Army

As well as the militia that defends each province, kingdoms and duchies can have an army. Armies are good things to have in that you can use them to conquer places, and they will also help defend you against attack. Unfortunately, they are costly things to maintain. Each turn you will be asked how many troops you want to raise for that turn: each 1 troop you raise will cost 1 pop, this pop being taken off the provinces of the kingdom or duchy in proportion to each constituent province's pop (ie. those provinces with more pop will contribute more to the army).

There are limits on how big an army you can have. It cannot be more than twice as big as it was at the end of the previous turn, unless it was then smaller than 10% of your total pop, in which case it can now be up to 20%. And it can never be so large as to reduce your kingdom's pop to less than 1 pop remaining per province.

There are also limits on how small an army you can have. It can never be smaller than half as big as it was at the end of the previous turn, again unless this would reduce you to less than 1 pop per province.

Fortunately these maximum and minimum sizes are calculated for you and displayed on your order sheet.

When a kingdom orders an attack, the armies of its dukes automatically join it in the field - this prevents the dukes from making any attacks of their own. Any conquer or raid orders they have made will automatically fail. This total force is then divided between the (up to three) targets named.

When a kingdom is attacked, again all ducal armies are called to aid, although in this case it does not prevent them from making attacks elsewhere themselves. If it's the capital of the kingdom that's being attacked, then the whole force is used to defend, plus the local militia. If it's a province that is not the capital, a proportion of the army equal to twice this province's proportion of the kingdom's total pop is despatched, and aids the defending militia. So if a kingdom has say 5 provinces of equal population, if one of them is attacked it will be defended by 40% of the total army plus its own militia.

Unfortunately for dukes, their capitals are considered to be just any old province for the purposes of this rule. They will be defended only by a proportion of the kingdom's army, and also of their own army. So a duke who has a big army will not get the full benefit of it for defensive purposes. Mind you, he probably didn't build it for defensive purposes…

8.9 Learning from war

As a result of combat, whether conquest or raid, the province attacked will always gain 1 fractional point of mil civ. In the case of a raid, if it is successful the attacker will also gain 1. In the case of a conquest, the attacker will gain 2 fractional points of mil if it is successful, 1 if it fails. If a kingdom conquers or raids multiple places in a turn, though, it doesn't score this increase multiple times: it can learn a maximum of 2 and 1 respectively.

9 Barbarians in more depth

As you'll have seen earlier, there are basically three things a barbarian horde can do in a turn: migrate, ravage and settle. Every horde must move every turn: if you do not order it to move, it will do so randomly. It can move to anywhere that is within a distance of 5 from where it currently is. The four barbarian regions in which all hordes start are assumed to have a distance cost of 0 for this purpose. So a horde that starts the turn in Arabia, say, can move to Egypt, Palestine, Cappadocia, Tripolitania or Africa. If it chose Cappadocia, then the following turn it could move to Egypt, Palestine, Pontus or Lydia. Once a barbarian horde leaves its region of origin it can never re-enter it, nor can it ever enter any other barbarian region. So an Arabian or Saharan horde will never be able to reach the main part of Europa at all, but will be confined to the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean and to Asia Minor. Asian hordes are a bit more fortunate, because Asia extends all the way up to Finlandia: so with dedication one of these hordes could penetrate deep into Western Europa.

9.1 The North Sea pirates

Barbarians from the North Sea are a bit of a special case, and have their own movement rules. The limit of distance 5 does not apply to them: instead, they can move to any province that has a coast on the same sea area as their current province. So when they first appear in the North Sea, they can land anywhere that coasts on that sea: the next turn, they can move to any other province that coasts on that sea. Or, if they had moved to say Brittany or Devon in the first turn, in the second turn they could move to anywhere on the Atlantic. This means that in a few turns they can get round into the Mediterranean if they wish.

This special movement ability will be lost if the North Sea barbarians ever move inland: if they do, then the usual barbarian movement rules apply to them from then on.

9.2 Migration

Migration is the simplest kind of barbarian action. It simply involves the horde moving to a province that is within its range. No killing or anything is involved: the horde simply ignores the locals. Each turn that a barbarian horde migrates, it will lose 10% of its size through natural wastage and desertion.

9.3 Ravaging

This is a more natural behaviour for a barbarian horde to follow. Again, it can ravage any province within its movement range. It moves to the province and enters combat with the defenders (whether they be just militia or part of a kingdom army as well). If the barbarians lose they are utterly wiped out. If they win, they kill all the defending troops, the civ (in all three paths) of the province is halved, the pop of the province is halved, and the controller of the barbarians gains VPs equal to twice the number of fractional points of civ that were destroyed. So if you ravage a province with initial civ 3.3 / 2.1 / 4, it will end on civ 2.2 / 1.1 / 2.2 and you get 22 VP.

If the province the barbarians have successfully ravaged is the capital of a rump, that rump is immediately destroyed. This is the only situation in which barbarian ravages will affect ownership of a province.

9.4 Settling

This is the order to use when the barbarians grow tired of trooping around the continent. Again, they can settle any province that is within range. They move to it, combat the defenders; and, as with ravaging, if they lose they are wiped out. If they win, though, then they settle in the province and select one of their number to be king. This king is automatically controlled by the player who controlled the horde (which now no longer exists) and has a random age from 1 to 3. Half of the province's civ is destroyed, as with ravaging, but the horde's controller doesn't gain VPs from this; and, unlike with ravaging, no pop are killed (apart from the ones who were in the militia, of course). Half of the horde immediately convert into army, the other half convert into population. From this point on, the province is treated exactly as an ordinary new kingdom, with an ordinary leader.

9.5 Barbarians and combat

Barbarians always have a kill fraction of 0.25, because they always have ferocity 10 and mil civ 0. This makes them pretty effective against decadent nations, but not much good against well-equipped troops.

After a barbarian attack (whether to ravage or to settle) the province attacked always gains a fractional point of mil civ, just like after a real combat in 8.9 above.

10 Trade

You can get population by raiding your neighbours, but a better way (that will usually get more, and not annoy them) is by trade. When a kingdom, duchy or independent province orders to trade, it trades with all kingdoms, duchies or independent provinces which:

Each trade carried out gains the trader either its own BTV in pop or that of the trade target, whichever is the lesser value. The trade target gains a quarter of this value as well, rounded down of course. Note that for kingdoms and duchies the BTV in question is the entire BTV of all provinces which make it up.

So if eg. a kingdom comprising Andalusia (BTV 4) and Valencia (BTV 3) trades with an independent Granada (BTV 4), the kingdom gains 4 pop and Granada gains 1 pop. If it trades with a kingdom comprising Gascony (BTV 6) and Catalonia (BTV 3) then it will gain 7 pop, and the other kingdom will gain 1. If you have a large SoI, then you can manage to rack up some very large numbers in trade, especially once there are some large kingdoms about.

Pop gained by an independent province's trade is just added directly to its total. Pop gained by a kingdom or duchy is shared among its provinces as follows: 40% to the capital, then the remaining 60% divided between all the provinces (including the capital again) in proportion to their current populations.

Of course, you don't have to carry out these calculations yourself, basically you just decide to trade or not to trade. You don't have to choose who to trade with, either, you'll just automatically trade with anyone else in your SoI who wants to and with whom you're not hostile. The pro of trading is that it gains you pop, if you want pop; the con is that it benefits your neighbours, who may be rival players. And of course that if you're trading you can't be attacking or developing.

If you and one of your trade partners are mutually Friendly, then there is a bonus for both of you of 20% to the proceeds of trade. Similarly, if one of your trade partners also ordered to trade actively this turn, rather than just being the passive recipient of your trade, there is a bonus of 20% for both of you for mutual trade.

When a kingdom or duchy orders to trade, it also gets the choice of gaining a fractional point of either soc or com civ. So trade is an effective way to increase both a province's pop and its civ.

Being the passive recipient of the trade of others is also beneficial, but more so to them than you, and it may give you the Black Death (see 14 for more on this scourge of the mercantile society). The only way of being sure to prevent others from trading with you is to be Unfriendly to them.

11 Persuasion

You do not have to resort to violence to enlarge your kingdom. As well as conquering provinces, you can send ambassadors to persuade them to join you as vassals. To persuade is easier if you are not very ferocious, and it is also easier if you are more civilized than your target. This is how it works:

The net difference in civs considered here is just integer civs, it takes no account of any spare fractional points you may have. So eg. a kingdom with civ 2.2 / 3.1 / 4, trying to persuade a province with civ 2 / 2.1 / 2.1, will have its bid modified by (2 + 3 + 4) - (2 + 2 + 2) = +3. Also, if the target province is part of a kingdom, then the persuading kingdom's civ is compared with the owning kingdom's civ rather than that of the province itself, if it's better. So if the above province was part of a kingdom which had civ 2.2 / 4.1 / 4, then the bidding kingdom would be at -1 to its persuasion bid.

Vassal states are no different in game terms from provinces you have conquered into the kingdom, except that other kingdoms can attempt to persuade them away again, and also they may rebel.

If you think another kingdom may be trying to persuade away one of your vassals, you can bid persuasion points out of your 10 for it to try and retain it. The other kingdom will then have to surpass your bid in order to take the vassal.

11.1 Ducal persuasion

Duchies can persuade too, but they are only allowed to persuade provinces which are in the same kingdom as them. These may be the holdings of other dukes, or solely of the king. Each duke has 5 points with which to so act: the other rules are the same as for kings' persuasion above. And, similarly, the king or the rival duke can spend persuasion points on his own provinces to counter this threat.

11.2 Vassal rebellion

Vassals are not entirely tractable, and there is a chance that they may rebel. This is more likely to happen if you have lots of them, especially if you have a large kingdom.

When a vassal rebels it becomes independent, and it immediately attacks another province of your kingdom. It will grab from that province population equal to one fifth of its own pop, up to a quarter of the pop of the attacked province. The attacked province will lose twice this amount of pop. So you can see that vassal rebellion can be a real pain: it takes one province away from you and will probably trash another one. Rebelling vassals do not use the normal combat or movement rules, they will attack any other province of your kingdom (at random) no matter how far away it is, and will automatically succeed.

The chance of a vassal rebelling from a particular kingdom is given by:

chance of rebellion = number of vassals / (total number of provinces + 2)

So if your kingdom was made up of 5 provinces, of which 3 were vassals, the chance of a rebellion would be 3 in 7. If this chance comes up, it is a random vassal that rebels.

Remember that when a kingdom's capital changes, some of its provinces may become vassals which were not previously. This will also happen if it becomes a rump. See 6.4 for more on this.

12 Housekeeping

Housekeeping is an umbrella term which covers the natural effects of time on your kingdom. During the housekeeping part of the turn, population will grow, civilization, population and decadence will spread between the kingdom's provinces, and some may suffer famine.

12.1 Population increase

Each turn, the population of every province of Europa will increase. How much it increases by depends on what it was to start with. In general it will increase by 25% rounded down, but to a minimum of 5, and by a minimum of 2. So it works out like this:

12.2 Cultural diffusion

Civilization is developed at the capital of a kingdom or duchy, but its benefits are not limited to that province: improved knowledge and techniques will diffuse outwards to reach far-flung provinces as well. The same is true if you conquer or persuade a high-civ province into your kingdom: its knowledge will also be diffused to your other holdings. This is how the process works:

Note that all adjustments are made immediately. So, if the provinces in the example above are all adjacent to one another, then the one which started at 1.1 ends at 2.1 as above; the one that started at 2 gains a fractional point from looking at the 3 and also ends on 2.1; and the one that started at 2.2 gets a fractional point from the 3 and ends at 3. The one that started at 3 of course gains nothing, because it has no more civilized province to learn from.

This is a bit complicated, but there's no real need for you to try and predict it unless you're very keen. Just take our word for it that it will have sensible effects.

12.3 Population migration

During this phase of the turn, population migrates within every kingdom, from densely populated provinces to less dense ones. This works as follows:

Again, a bit complicated, but what it means is simply that population gets shuffled fairly evenly about the kingdom, and the benefits of trade etc. are shared around. Probably not worth trying to work out yourself (unless you're a real masochist).

12.4 Neighbours

Note that for cultural diffusion and population migration above we use the term 'neighbour'. It is important to bear in mind whether your provinces neighbour each other. If your kingdom is made up of provinces that do not adjoin, neither civ nor pop will be able to pass between them.

You may want to bear this restriction in mind when considering how best to inconvenience your rivals.

For the purposes of cultural diffusion and population migration, and also for the Pox described in 12.1, each of the continent's small islands is considered to be a neighbour to one of the nearby mainland provinces. These 'virtual neighbours' are shown on the map with dotted-line double-headed arrows. Thus Ireland and Wales are considered neighbours for these purposes, Cyprus and Cilicia, and so on. This 'virtual neighbour' relationship does not affect the distance between the two provinces or the ease of movement between them, though. You still need a sphere of influence of 9 to get from Ireland to Wales, or vice versa.

12.5 Decadence

Your people are likely to develop a taste for the fine things in life once the benefits of civilization start to reach them, and they will become less and less willing to take up arms against the foe. Every time you order a province, kingdom or duchy to develop or trade, its ferocity will automatically fall by one point, to a minimum of 2.

In a kingdom or duchy this effect is applied to the capital. However, this does not mean that outlying provinces remain indefinitely ferocious. Each turn, any province which has a greater ferocity than its capital has a 50% chance of losing a point of ferocity. This is described for your holdings in the Spread of Decadence section of the turnsheet.

12.6 Famine

If at this point in the turn any province has a pd greater than 1, ie. its actual pop is higher than its max pop based on BTV and soc civ, then it will suffer famine. This sounds pretty scary, but in fact all it means is that the population will be reduced to the max pop that the province can sustain.

This brings up a point to bear in mind when planning trading: in general, during trade your capital will get the bulk of the benefit. If it is centrally located in the kingdom, then population migration will share this benefit around, but you might well end up with a load of your trade getting stuck in the capital and having to suffer famine.

13 Plague

As civilization spreads across the continent of Europa, the general trend is to growing populations, and to increased contact between nations. But these tendencies, while bringing the benefits of prosperity and knowledge, also carry on their coat-tails two less welcome guests: the two plagues, Pox and Black Death.

13.1 Pox

If, at the Plague Watch point of any turn (see Processing Order below), the population density of Europa is greater than or equal to 0.6 (ie. the total actual population is more than 60% of the total maximum population), Pox has a chance of striking. The chance is given by:

Chance of pox = (pd of Europa - 0.6) / 0.2

so you can see that if the pd of Europa should ever exceed 0.8, then pox is a certainty.

Pox hits the five provinces with the highest population density. It immediately kills a number of population within that province equal to (current pop pop density 0.5).

At the end of the turn the Pox will die out in the stricken province - but if the population density of any of the stricken province's neighbours is greater than or equal to 0.5, the Pox will move to the densest such neighbour province and strike it in exactly the same way the following turn. It can keep on moving indefinitely in this way if population densities remain high.

13.2 Black Death

Black Death is toggled when the total com civ of Europa, as measured at the Plague Watch point of the turn (see Processing Order below), reaches or passes a multiple of 60. By 'toggled', we mean that if there is no Black Death in the game when this happens, a new infestation is launched: but if there is still Black Death hanging around from an earlier bout, then it dies away. So you might get Black Death launched when the total com civ of Europe passes through 60, continuing to rage for a while and then disappearing when it passes through 120, re-appearing at 180, etc. Black Death can die away by itself without waiting to be toggled, but as for that to happen players have to muzzle their greed, it's not worth counting on.

Black Death strikes the kingdom containing the province with the highest com civ (ties broken randomly). It immediately kills (current pop pop density 0.5) population in each province of that kingdom.

Black Death will only rage for one turn in the stricken kingdom, but the pestilence will spread on the following turn. It will automatically pass to every kingdom which trades with the victim kingdom, or with which the victim kingdom trades, and strikes each of them in exactly the same way. It will continue spreading in the same way as long as afflicted kingdoms continue to trade with each other, although each kingdom can only ever get it once: the people become immune, so they can't suffer it again. Of course, if a new infestation of Black Death breaks out a few turns down the line as the result of a later toggle, then all bets are off and all kingdoms can suffer from it anew, as their people's hard-won immunity will be no use against this new strain.

You will be told when Black Death is afoot in Europa, but not who has it, unless they give it to you - in which case it is too late. Your best bet is to refrain from trading, whether active or passive, once its dread tocsin is sounded. You can refrain from active trading by simply not issuing any trade orders. Refraining from passive trading is more difficult: you must be Hostile (see 7.1 and 9 for more on attitudes and on trade) with every nation which you think might wish to trade with you, if you suspect them of being about to pass you the Black Death.

Of course if you have the Black Death yourself, and wish to spread it to as many people as possible, you will best do so by ordering trade. This may well make you rather unpopular, not unnaturally, as your unfortunate trade partners will know exactly where they got it from.

14 Information

You get full information about your own kingdoms, duchies, barbarians and independent provinces, but what you are told about other players' holdings is slightly more limited.

Each turn, you will be told which player controls each kingdom and duchy, what its constituent provinces are, whether those provinces are conquered or vassal, and what attitude the kingdom or duchy has towards you. You will not be told which independent provinces are controlled (or by whom).

Further information you get about other kingdoms is qualitative rather than quantitative. You will be told whether it is population density is high, medium or low (ie. if the pds of all the kingdoms of Europa were ranked in order, would it be in the top third, the middle third or the lower third) and similarly for the three civ paths. You will be told whether its army is large, medium or small (which is ranking by thirds again). And you will be told how old its king is.

Apart from that you will get a full report, with comments, details and messages, about what you yourself did during the turn, and on things that happened to you: other events elsewhere on the map you'll get in a news-y format, including all the conquests and persuasions, list of which kingdoms traded, which new leaders became controlled, and such like.

You will also get a colour map every turn which basically represents a subset of this information in graphical form: you'll be shown where the various leaders are, who controls them, what they own, their vassals and dukes, plus barbarian hordes and newly-appeared leaders. If you are a postal player you will get this as a printout; if you are an email player you will get it as a GIF; and if you are a player using the Europa Client you will get it in a special file for reading into that program, which as well as the information on the map represents the other data on your turnsheet in interactive form.

Every fifth turn you'll get another little bonus, which is a graph showing how the victory points of the eight players have moved over time. This will also be displayed on our Web site, for the general public to marvel at your doings.

15 Victory Points and game end

Each turn, each player will be awarded a number of Victory Points, which will be added onto the player's running total. You get VPs for:

VPs do not hold their value, alas. Each turn, your current VP total is reduced by 15%, before the new turn's VPs are added on. This is because history has a short memory. Great deeds done at the beginning of the game will count for less than those at its end. You should treat the early part of the game as a time to build a platform to set yourself up for the final assault, rather than peaking too soon by just trying to score as many VPs as possible as quickly as possible.

15.1 The end of the game

There are two ways the game can end:

The chances of it going to Turn 21 are pretty slim, though. It's more than 95% likely to finish on Turn 19 or 20.

16 Processing Order

This is the order in which things happen during the turn. Each stage is enacted fully before the next is started, eg. all secession happens before any troops are raised. Most of the stages are enacted simultaneously for all provinces / kingdoms, or as close to it as possible, with the exception of combat which is enacted in the order described in 8 above, and leader death which happens in descending order of age.

17 The turnsheet

Each turn after the startup turn you will get a report detailing the results of all your orders, plus reports of all combats and all trading with provinces you control. You will also get a big table showing what you know about the provinces, kingdoms, duchies and barbarians, and a table of current victory points. You will be told which leaders and provinces you control for the coming turn, and will be given a sheet on which to make orders for them, and to assign your control points for the following turn.

Note that the first three letters of each province's name is unique, so you can refer to it by those alone for convenience if you wish, or (even better) by its ID number.

The startup turn is slightly different. On it you merely have to give a name for your 'player entity' and assign 10 control points between the 12 leaders and 85 provinces - this assignation will determine what you control and can order for on Turn 1 proper.

At the start of the game there are age 0 leaders in the following provinces: Carinthia, Castille, Ditmarsh, Kent, Kiev, Lydia, Neustria, Rome, Septimania, Skane, Strathclyde and Tripolitania.

18 Frequently Asked Questions

Can leaders from different kingdoms team up in combat?

No. Communications weren't really that civilised until the late 17th / early 18th century. You can always cooperate by both attacking different provinces of the same enemy, however.

If one of my kingdoms becomes a rump, but I have leaders outside it, is there any way of bringing the whole rump under their control?

No. You cannot swear the outside leader into the rump, and conquest or persuasion of the capital will disintegrate the kingdom. You can either break the rump up and reconquer it, or leave it as a rump in the hope that you'll get a new leader inside it.

Why did my order to conquer / persuade / swear fealty to Province X fail?

Usually because it is outside your Sphere of Influence. Remember that you always count distance from your capital, and that you have to include both starting and ending province.

If I bid CPs for provinces in a rump the same turn as the owner of the rump tries to revitalize it by bidding for a leader in that rump, would I succeed in taking the provinces?

No alas, because control of leaders happens before control of provinces. This sequence doesn't generally make much difference, but this is one situation where it would.

What can and can't you do with rumps?

A rump only has the same simple develop, trade or raid orders as an independent province. It cannot conquer, persuade or swear fealty. It keeps the army it had when it was an active kingdom, but you have no control over this army's size. All its provinces become vassals, so they can be persuaded away by other kings. But you do keep on scoring VPs for it in the meantime. Really your best hope is for a new leader to emerge within it, so that you can revitalize it back into a proper kingdom. Apart from that, players can persuade or control provinces away from the rump, not including its capital; and they can destroy the rump altogether by conquering the capital or by ravaging it with barbarians.

Why did my victory points go down this turn?

They will do from time to time. Basically if you don't score any at all they'll shrink by 15% per turn: so you have to score 18% of your current total just to stay still.

What's the point of these victory points shrinking anyway? It seems a bit hard on people who did well early on and then got trashed.

Well, that's history for you: no-one remembers the Etruscans, but they had a perfectly nice civilization going until the Romans came along and destroyed it around 500 BC. If you do well in the first half of the game and badly in the second half, you'll finish worse than a player who does badly in the first half and well in the second half. So going all-out to score as many VPs as you can straight away is going to be wasted effort and may even be counter-productive. You should instead be trying to build yourself a firm strategic base.

Does that arrow on the map mean that you can move easily from Ireland to Wales, and so on?

No. It just means that civ and pop can trickle between the two provinces, if they're part of the same kingdom. It doesn't make any difference to movement, to SoI, or to anything else.

What about the dotted line between Devon and Brittany, then?

No, that doesn't have anything to do with movement either: it's just the border between the North Sea and the Atlantic.

19 Strategy tips (with thanks to 'Mad' Mike Oswald)

What is it best to bid for, leaders or provinces?

Usually leaders. Provinces are very easy to conquer and can also be bid away from you. Out-of-the-way provinces, like Iceland, are worth bidding for in the hope of civilizing them swiftly and scoring a few quick and dirty VPs. As the game goes on, however, provinces are more and more vulnerable to powerful empires. Their main use in the end-game is for causing annoyance by raiding their neighbours.

Should I swear all my leaders into one kingdom, or keep them as separate kingdoms?

There are strong arguments for both approaches. If you rule several kingdoms, each king has his own persuasion points and can mount his own three military campaigns. This makes rapid expansion easier. You can also score an empire bonus for each, if they get big enough. The weaknesses with this approach are:

Bear in mind that if you do swear kings together, any provinces held by the one who becomes duke that are outside the SoI of the one who remains king will automatically become vassals.

How dangerous is secession?

Very. Unless your erstwhile overlord is busy elsewhere, you are likely to get the full force of the kingdom's army bearing down on your somewhat limited resources. If the duke is seeking just to change overlords, he still has a turn of shivering in the cold, because thanks to the processing order he cannot swear fealty to another king in the turn he secedes.

What are the best areas to bid for?

It depends. High BTV areas grow faster and further, making them potentially the strongest. On the other hand, low BTV areas are easier to defend (and likely to be less popular). In the early to mid game, it's well worth having your back to the sea as this requires a relatively high sphere of influence to navigate (although if you can manage to cross the sea, you can cover a comparatively long distance). And if you're starting from mountains it takes forever to get anywhere.

What's the point of barbarians?

They have two main uses, and which is more important to you will usually depend on how you are doing in the game. If you are doing badly, then the most useful thing you can usually do is find somewhere nice to settle them and build a kingdom. If you are doing well, they're probably going to be more use ravaging your rivals. A decent-sized barbarian horde can topple the capital of a mighty empire if you can get it into the right place.

20 The Europa Client

Players who receive their turn results via email, and have a PC, can download from our Web site (or be emailed) the Europa Client software. This is a rather cunning little utility that displays the current map of your Europa game, coloured in according to who controls what, with all the information you have on the various kingdoms and provinces available at the click of a mouse, together with things like displaying your sphere of influence.

Basically it's a very useful piece of kit. It doesn't give players who have it any more information than anyone else gets, but as it's interactive it's capable of displaying it more helpfully. We strongly recommend that all email players with PCs get hold of a copy from our Web site - or we can email it to you.

Sorry, the Europa Client isn't available for other hardware platforms. It's also not available for postal players.

21 Admin and credits

To contact us:

Undying King Games
57 London Road
(01865) 203632
+44 1865 203632

Europa costs GBP 2.50 per turn, and unless your account with us is in credit your orders will not be processed. A startup, including rules, map and your first four turns, costs GBP 10.00.

Europa was designed by James Handscombe, Mo Holkar, Martin Hornsey and Chris Tomkins, and programmed by Mo Holkar. The Europa Client was designed and programmed by Matthew Nesbit. Thanks also, of course, to the notorious UKG Playtest Crew, this time consisting of Andrew Barton, Phil Creed, Mel Dymond Harper, Duncan Hart, Steve Homer, Martin Lloyd, Tim Moore, Mike Oswald, Chris Robinson, Tony Short, Antony Smith, Chris Tomkins, Warlock, Gareth Williams, Toby Wright and Chris Yearsley.

Europa is copyright © Undying King Games 1998

Summary of orders

Order type
Provinces and rumps
Develop-- +1 fractional point of soc, com and mil
Trade-- Trades with SoI
Raid AA is a province A is in SoISteals pop from A if successful
Declare fealty to BB is a kingdom B is in SoIBecomes a duke of B
Raise C troopsC is an integer Max and min of C are givenCosts C pop
Develop / soc-- + 2 fractional points of soc and 1 of com
Develop / com-- + 2 fractional points of com and 1 of soc
Develop / all-- +1 fractional point of soc, com and mil
Trade / soc-- Trades with SoI and +1 fractional point of soc
Trade / com-- Trades with SoI and +1 fractional point of com
Conquer D
(up to three)
D is a province D is in SoI
D is not part of the kingdom
D joins kingdom if successful
Raid E
(up to three)
E is a province E is in SoI
E is not part of the kingdom
Steals pop from E if successful
Persuade F with G points
(up to three)
F is a province
G is an integer
F is in SoI
F is independent or a vassal
Total of G is 10
F joins kingdom as a vassal if successful
Attitude to H is now I
(up to three)
H is a kingdom or duchy
I is Friendly, Neutral or Unfriendly
I cannot move by
more than one place
Affects trade and kill fraction
Secede-- Becomes a kingdom
Raise J troopsJ is an integer Max and min of J are givenCosts J pop
Develop / soc-- + 2 fractional points of soc and 1 of com
Develop / com-- + 2 fractional points of com and 1 of soc
Develop / all-- +1 fractional point of soc, com and mil
Trade / soc-- Trades with SoI and +1 fractional point of soc
Trade / com-- Trades with SoI and +1 fractional point of com
Conquer K
(up to three)
K is a province K is in SoI
K is not part of the kingdom
K joins duchy (and kingdom of which it is part) if successful
Raid L
(up to three)
L is a province L is in SoI
L is not part of the kingdom
Steals pop from L if successful
Persuade M with N points
(up to three)
M is a province
N is an integer
M is in SoI
M is part of the kingdom
M is a vassal
Total of N is 5
M joins duchy as a vassal if successful
Attitude to O is now P
(up to three)
O is a kingdom or duchy
P is Friendly, Neutral or Unfriendly
P cannot move by
more than one place
Affects trade and kill fraction
Migrate to QQ is a province Q is in rangeHorde loses 10% of size
Ravage RR is a province R is in rangeR loses pop and civ, horde gains VPs
Settle SS is a province S is in rangeS loses civ, horde founds kingdom in S
Bid T points for UT is an integer
U is a province, leader or barbarian
If a leader or barbarian, U must be uncontrolled
Total of T is given
U belongs to player if successful, else T is converted to VPs